爱玩棋牌官网

爱玩棋牌官网
行业动向
政策法规
policies and regulations
政策法规

我国大宗工业固废综合利用问题及未来发展趋势

2018-12-05文章来源:原创文章

《dazong“shierwu”guihua》jiangzongheliyongnarulejienenghuanbaozhanlvexingxinxingchanyefanchou,duidazonggongyegutifeiwuziyuanzongheliyongdeyiyijiyulegaodukending。“shisanwu”guihuagangyaomingquetichu,laogushuliheguancheluoshichuangxin、xiediao、lvse、kaifang、gongxiangdexinfazhanlinian,jianchijieyueziyuanhebaohuhuanjingdejibenguoce,tuijinziyuanjieyuejiyueliyong,zuohaogongyegufeidengdazongfeiqiwuziyuanhualiyong。shouhongguanjingjixiaxingdengyingxiang,suiran“shisanwu”qijiandazonggongyegufeidezongheliyongmianlinzhegengweijudadeyali,dancongmuqiandezhengcebujulaikan,duobumenduojiaoduchutaizhengce,tishenglehuanbaochanyeshichangxuqiudegangxing,weihuanbaoxingchengxinyilundefazhanzuohaolepudian,huanbaochanyezhengjiasuburuhuangjinfazhanshiqi,dazonggongyegufeijiangxianqiyilunzhilirechao,dazonggongyegutifeiwuzongheliyongbijiangyinglaiyigekuaisufazhandejihaojiyuqi。

1、宏观政策长期利好工业固废综合利用发展

dangzhongyang、guowuyuangaoduzhongshihuanjingbaohugongzuo,jiangqizuoweiguancheluoshikexuefazhanguandezhongyaoneirong,zuoweizhuanbianjingjifazhanfangshidezhongyaoshouduan,zuoweituijinshengtaiwenmingjianshedegenbencuoshi。xijinpingzongshujiduociqiangdiao,“lvshuiqingshanjiushijinshanyinshan”,“yaojianchijieyueziyuanhebaohuhuanjingdejibenguoce”,“xiangbaohuyanjingyiyangbaohushengtaihuanjing,xiangduidaishengmingyiyangduidaishengtaihuanjing”,“shengtaihuanjingbaohushigongzaidangdai、lizaiqianqiudeshiye”。

zhengrushijiudabaogaosuotichude,jiansheshengtaiwenmingshizhonghuaminzuyongxufazhandeqianniandaji,shengtaiwenmingjiansheshiwoguoshehuijinhoufazhandezhangqizhuxuanlv,dazonggongyegufeideziyuanzongheliyongshishengtaiwenmingjianshedezhongyaoneironghezhuashou,yinci,hongguanhuanjingzhangqilihaodazonggongyegufeizongheliyongchanyefazhan。

fagaiweidengshisibuweilianhefabude《xunhuanfazhanyinlingxingdong》,mingquetichutuidongdazonggongyegufeizongheliyong,jianshegongyegutifeiwuzongheliyongchanyejidi,dalituijinduozhonggongyegutifeiwuxietongliyong。zheiweigongyegufeizongheliyongchanyefazhantigonglezhengcebaozhang。tongshi,xinhuanbaoshuifadechutaimingquelegongyegufeipaifangdeshuishoujiaonaedu,yeyidingchengducushiqiyejiadaduidazonggongyegutifeiwuzongheliyongdetouru。gongxinbufabude《gongyegutifeiwuziyuanzongheliyongpingjiaguanlizanxingbanfa》he《guojiagongyegutifeiwuziyuanzongheliyongchanpinmulu》weikexueguifangongyegutifeiwuziyuanzongheliyongpingjiazhidu,youxiaotuidonggongyegutifeiwuzongheliyongzanyumianzhenghuanjingbaohushuiyijisuodeshui、zengzhishuijianmiandengyouhuizhengceluodishishi,cujingongyegutifeiwuziyuanzongheliyongchanyekechixufazhandaxialelianghaodezhengcejichu。

tongshi,dashuju、yunjisuan、dianzishangwu、nixiangwuliudexinxihuaguanlidengyijingyi“hulianwang+”dechuangxinmoshikaishiyuziyuanzongheliyongchanyechanshengchuburonghe。

2、大宗工业固体废物综合利用产品市场潜力巨大,水泥混凝土及制品产业仍是利废的最有效途径

congdazonggongyegufeizongheliyongzhibeishuinihunningtufangmianlaikan,

①muqianwoguoliyongdazonggongyegufeizhibeilvsewushuinishuliaohuoshaoshuinishuliaojiaoningcailiaodejishuyixiangduichengshu,yichenggongkaifachulenenggouzaijiaojiechongtiancaikuang、gaoxingnenghunningtu、zhongjinshuguhua、gezhongzhuan、qikuai、hunningtuyuzhijiandengbutonglingyuguangfantidaishuinidexiliehuajiaoningcailiaochanpin。zaihunningtufangmian,gaijiaoningcailiaozhibeidehunningtuyinghuahouzonghenaijiuxingzhibiaobiputonghunningtutigao3zhi8bei,keyouxiaotishenghunningtuzhiliang、yanzhangjianzhudeshiyongshouming,tongshikeyigaibianhunningtuchanyeshengchanmoshi、jianhuagongyiliucheng、jianshaohuanjingwuran、tigaochanpinzhiliang,xianzhujiangdishengchanheguanlichengben、tishengqiyeyinglishuiping。

②zhizuohunningtujiqizhipinzhongdaliangdeshashiguliao,an1dunshuinixuyao6dundeshashiguliaosuan,meiniandayuexuyao132yidundeshashiguliao,shashiziyuandeduanque、huanjingdeshufu,muqian,woguoshashiguliaodedaliangkaicai、daliangliyong,woguoduoshengyiwushakemai。yinciliyongweikuangsha、feishi、meiganshi、fenmeihui、gangzhadengzhibeicuxiguliaodayoukewei。

③gezhonggufeizhibeidefenticailiao,zaihunningtuzhongzuoweixingnengdiaojiexingcailiao(gaishanjiaoningxing、tigaomishixing、gaishangongzuoxing、tigaonaijiuxingdeng),yixiegongyegutifeiwuyijingchengweishixianhunningtumouxiexingnengbukehuoquedegongnenghejiegouzufen。dazonggongyegufeizaishuiniyuhunningtuzhongziyuanhualiyongdeqianlibingmeiyouwanquanbeiwajueheliyong,yixiegaoxingnenghuahegaozhihualiyongdejishuluxianhechuangxinchuangyi,haimeiyoudedaoshijianheyingyong。

tongshi,suizheguojia“yidaiyilu”、“xionganxinqu”、“tesexiaozhen”、“haimianchengshi”dengzhengcedaidong,shidelvsejiancai、lvsejianzhu、lvsegongchang、jianzhujieneng、haimianchengshi、zhuangpeishijianzhu、meilixiangcundegainianshenrutuiguang,liyongdazonggongyegufeizhizuodegezhongzhuan、qikuai、taocidengchanpinyejiangdayoukewei。

3、高性能化、高值化是大宗工业固体废物综合利用产业发展的大趋势

dizhihuadazonggongyegutifeiwuziyuanhualiyongjishuluxianjiandanyixing,danjishuhanliangdi、xingyejinrumenjiandi、chanpindangcidi、liyongfangshicufangdeng,daozhixingyeneiexingjingzhengjilie、channengguoshengyanzhong、chanpinshichangjingzhengliruo、shichangzhanyoulvdi、qiyeyinglinenglicha、ziyuanzongheliyongxiaolvdi、huanjingwuranwentituchu、“liebiquzhuliangbi”dengzhuduowenti,zoubuyuan。dazonggongyegutifeiwuzongheliyongchanpindegaojishujiagong、gaoxingnenghua、gaozhihuashidaqushi。

genjuchanpinquanshengmingzhouqipingjia,dizhiliangdixingnengchanpindenaijiuxingcha、shoumingzhouqiduan,bingbunengshixianzhenzhengdejienengjianpaihelvseditan,suizhelvsezhizao、lvsejianzhuliniandefazhanhetisheng。chanpinbiaozhunhelvsejianzhupingjiabiaozhunyaoqiujianghuiyuelaiyuegao,shichangxuqiujiangdaobilifeijiancaichanyechuangxinfazhanhezhuanxingshengji,cujindazonggongyegutifeiwuzongheliyongxianggaoxingnenghua、gaozhihualiangxingfazhan。

yinci,gaojishuhanliang、gaopinzhi、gaoxingneng、gaofujiazhidegufeizongheliyongchanpin,shiwoguodazonggongyegutifeiwuzongheliyongchanyefazhandebiranqushi。

4、多元化布局与集聚式发展是大宗工业固废综合利用产业发展的主要路径

zaidazonggongyegufeizongheliyongfangmian,jijushikeyouxiaocujinchanyeyushangxiayouxiangguanchanyexietonglianjie,gongyechanyeyuchengshishehuijianshengtaiouhe,gong、nongyejiandeshengtailianjie,qiye、yuanqu、xingyejianziyuangongxiang、yuanliaohugong、lianjiegongsheng;

muqian,yiyuanqu、jidiweizaitidedazonggongyegutifeiwuzongheliyongchanyejijufazhanmoshi,zaiwoguoduodidouqudelexianzhudechengxiao,weilaijijushifazhanjiangshidazonggongyegutifeiwuzongheliyongchanyefazhandezhuyaomoshi。duiyuziyuanxingchengshi,weiraoziyuanxingchengshideziyuanshuxingtedianjichanyetedian,chongfenkaolvgeshi、qu、xianzhijian,chanyezhijiandexiediaokexuefazhan,anzhao“tongyiguihua、chanyejiju、tuchutese、liangzhibingju”defazhanlinian,zaigeshi、qu、xianzhinei,tuchutese、jijufazhan,helihuafenchulitichanyejiegou,goujianchanyejianzongxiangladong、hengxianghubu,quanfangwei、duocengci、kuanlingyu、guangfugaideduoyuanhuachanyefazhangeju,bimianchanyebujutongzhihuaheleitonghua,bimianzaochengchannengguoshengyuexingjingzheng,jiangshiziyuanxingchengshidazonggongyegutifeiwuzongheliyongchanyefazhandezhuyaolujing。

5、多种固废协同利用和区域产业协同发展是产业未来发展的主要模式

yiwangduidazonggongyegufeidezongheliyong,danzhonggufeideliyongkaolvjiaoduo,duozhonggufeiquanchanyelianxietongliyongjiaoshao,zaijiashangxingyebileideshufu,shiduozhonggongyegufeixietongliyongdejishuchuangxinhechengshujishudekuaisudaguimotuiguangshoudaoxianzhi。muqianshuinigongye,jiancaixingyeyijingliyongbenxingyesheshikaizhangutifeiwuliyongxietongchulishijian。qitaxingye,ruliyongliantiegaoluchuligezhahefeisuliao、meijiaoyou、hantiekuangzhahekuangsha,liyongdianchangguoluchuliwushuichangwuni,dengdeng,yeyijingqudelehenhaodexiaoguo。keyiqidaizaiyouxiandeweilai,duozhonggufeixietongchuzhijiangyouzhangzudefazhan,shixiangutifeiwuchanshengzhe、chulizhehechuzhisheshiyongyouzhedesanyingjumian,bingtuidonggongyegufeizongheliyongchanyejiangxiangzongshenfazhan。

6、基于互联网的精准数据驱动是产业未来发展的大趋势

zai“hulianwang+”dedashidaibeijingxia,jiangdazonggongyegutifeiwudehuanjingyaosuxinxihezongheliyongyaosuxinxiyuhulianwangjiehe,chongfenliyongdashuju、yunjisuandengjishu,jianlijishuronghe、yewuronghe、shujuronghededazonggongyegutifeiwudashujukuheziyuangongxiangkaifangmenhupingtai,quanmianxitonghuijidazonggongyegutifeiwuchansheng、ziyuanshuxing、liyong、wuranfangzhi、chanpinhuanjingjiankangfengxianpingguyukongzhidengfangmiandexiangguanshuju,shixiandazonggongyegutifeiwuwuranfangzhihezongheliyonglingyugezhongyaosudexinxigongxiang,pochutizhizhangai,xiaochuliyifanli,dapoxinxibilei,bingchongfenwajuedazonggongyegutifeiwujianlianghua、wuhaihua、ziyuanhualingyudedashuju“zuanshikuang”,jingzhunkaizhanzhengwuxinxi、chanyexinxi、kejichengguo、jishuzhuangbei、yanfasheji、shengchanzhizao、jingyingguanli、caigouxiaoshou、ceshipingjia、zhiliangrenzheng、xueshu、biaozhun、zhishichanquan、jinrong、falv、rencaidengfangmian

dazonggongyegutifeiwudehuanjingzhilihezongheliyongchanyeyoushiyigeduoxueke、duoxingye、duolingyu、duodiyu、duochanyexianghujiaocha、xianghushentoudexinchanye,juyougongyegutifeiwuzhongleizhongduo、chanshenglianghelishiduicunliangda、diqufenbuguangfan、chanyeshangxiayougongxuguanxifuzadengtedian。duiyuwoguodazonggongyegufeichanyebujujijuzhidaoyiyi。jiejuejiadibuqing、xinxibuchang,shizhongshixingyemianlindezhongyaonanti。jingguoduoniandefazhan,woguodazonggongyegutifeiwuwuranfangzhihezongheliyonglingyuzhongjidianledaguimodehailiangshuju。danmuqian,zheixieshujufensanzaibutongchanye、butongzhuti、gezhongleixingqiyeyijichanyeliandegegehuanjie,rengjuyouyidingdesuipianhuatezheng,shangweixingchengkeyanzhan、kegongxiang、kaifangshideshujuzichantixi。quanmianmoqingjiadi、datongxinxibileiyizhiwoguodazonggongyegutifeiwuhuanjingzhilihezongheliyongxiangguanzhengchanxueyanyongzidenggegelingyudegongtongsuqiu,suizhewoguohuanjingzhiliyaoqiuderiyiyange,huanbaochanyedexingqi,dazonggongyegutifeiwuziyuanshuxingdefanzhuan,dazonggongyegutifeiwuhuanjingzhilihezongheliyongchanyerechaodexianqi,zheiyisuqiujianghuiyuelaiyueqianglie。

gongyegufeiwangzaidazonggongyegufeizongheliyonglingyushengengduonian,zaishuju、jingyan、jishushangyouzheshenhoudejilei,weiduozuoziyuanxingchengshizaigongyegufeizongheliyongzuochuguihuahejiejuefangan,weiduojiaqiyetigongchanyejishu、chanyejinrongfuwudeng。jianyizaigufeizongheliyongcunzaikunraodeqiyehedifangzhengfu,keyitongguoyugongyegufeiwangjinxinghezuo,genjuzishendesuqiuzhidingqieshikexingdepeitaojiejuefangan。

目前存在的主要问题

jinnianlai,huanbaozhengcedaobichanyedetuidongxia,dazonggongyegufeizongheliyongqudelezhangzufazhan,danshiyouyuwoguodazonggongyegutifeiwuxinzengchanliangda、lishiduicunliangda、fenbubujunheng、chengfenfuzadengyuanyin,muqianrengcunzailiyongliangxiao、fujiazhidi、liyongchengbengao、jishukaifatourubuzu、shichanghuoyuedujiaodi、tongzhihuajingzhenghechannengguoshengyanzhong、jiadibuqing、quyufazhanbupingheng、xiangguankeyanrenyuanhegongchengjishurenyuanquekouda、zhengtichanyekejizhichengyanzhongbuzu、falvfaguibuwanbei、zhengcejizhibuwanshan、peitaozhengcebuxiediaodengwenti。

conggufeibenshendejiaodukan

①chanshengliangda,liyongrenwushifenjianju。jiezhi“shierwu”mo,woguodazonggongyegutifeiwuzongduicunliangyida300yidun。qiliangda,zhucun、chuzhizhandiduo,yiduishengtaihuanjingheshehuikechixufazhanzaochengleyanzhongdeyingxiang。

②fenbubujunheng,quyuchayida,liyongnanduda。zhuyaotixianzaiyixialianggefangmian:yi、shouziyuanfenbu、jingjifazhanshuiping、jishunengliyingxiang,dazonggongyegufeichanshengliangheduicunliangzaiquyufenbushangjibujunheng,chengxianchujingjiqianfadadiquhepianyuandiquduo,erjingjifadadiqushaodetedian。jingjijiaoweifadadiqudazonggongyegutifeiwuchanshengliangxiao,danshichangxuqiuda,erpianpidiqushichangrongliangyouxian,qieshoushichangxiaoshoubanjingxianzhi,daliangdefeiqiwunanyidedaoliyong。er、quyufenbushangbujun,tongzhihuaxianxiangyanzhong,ruyulin、baotou、eerduosi、wuhaidengyimeitanweizhudeziyuanxingchengshi,gufeileibiexiangsi、chanyejiegouxiangjin、chanpinfushequyuzhongdiedengtezheng,shidegaiquyuneigufeiliyongnandujiada。

③woguodazonggongyegutifeiwuchengfenfuza、bodongda,liyongnanduda、liyongchengbengao。chengfenfuza、bodongdazhuyaotixianzai:yi、butongzhongleidegufei,ziyuanshuxingbutong,liyongnandubutong,rumuqiankuangzhayidedaolehenhaodeliyong,ergangzhayinqizishendeandingxingbuliang、yimoxingcha、huoxingjiaodidengyuanyin,qizongheliyonglvbuzu30%,er、tongleigufeidejutihuaxuechengfenhanliangyinyuanliaochandi、yuanliaoxingzhi、shengchangongyi、jishushuiping、chuligongyidengbutongerchayijiaoda,rubutongdianchanghuotongyidianchangbutongshiqipaichudefenmeihuidejutihuaxuechengfenhanliangbutong,liaoningfuxindemeiganshiyushanxidatongdemeiganshidechengfenbutong。fuzadechengfen,jidazonggongyegutifeiwuzongheliyongdailailejidadenandu,zaochengyuchulichengbengao,liyongliangxiao,chanpinzhiliangnanyibaozheng,lifeiqiyeyinglikongjianxiaodengwenti,zhiyuegufeizaijiancailingyudaguimoyingyong。

2congjishudejiaodukan

①shiyanshijieduandejishuduo,erzhenzhengnengchanyehuadechengshujishushao。jinnianlaiwoguodazonggongyegufeizongheliyonglingyuxiangguanzhuanlishenqingheshouquanshuliangxianzhuzengjia,muqian,geleidazonggongyegufeijibenshangdounengzuochengchanpin。raner,nengshixianchanyehuabingyinglidejishuhenshao,dabujizhongzaichuantongjiancaixingye,chanpinfujiazhidi、xiaoshoubanjingduan。

②difujiazhiguimohuajishuchengshu,xiangguanchanpinmianlinchannengguosheng,ergaofujiazhiguimohuajishudechanyehuashao。jiancaixingyeshikeyidaliangxiaonadazonggongyegutifeiwudezhongdianxingye。erdazonggongyegutifeiwuzaigaoduanjiancailingyudeyingyongshangcunzaixuduojishupingjing,youqiquefadaguimo、gaofujiazhiliyongqiejuyoudaidongxiaoyingdezhongdajishuhezhuangbei。ciwai,woguodazonggongyegutifeiwuzaixincailiaochanyelingyudeyingyongshangshujishuyanjiuhetansuojieduan,julichanyehuayingyonghaiyouhenzhangdeyiduanluyaozou。

3congchanyedejiaodukan

①muqianzongheliyongqiyeshuliangshao,guimoxiao,chanyejizhongdudi,daduochuyuchanyelianchujididuan,quefazizhudexianjinhexinjishuhechuangxinnengli。gufeizongheliyongshichanghuoyuedujiaodi、chanpinfujiazhidi、yinglikongjianxiao、chanyerengranjiaoweichuji。

②chanyezhichengnenglishangbuzu,dazonggongyegufeizongheliyongtongji、guanli、peixun、xinxi、jishutuiguanghefuwuqianqueyanzhong,xinxibuduicheng,shujuqueshinanyiqudongchanyefazhan。

4congshichangdejiaodukan

①jishu、chanpinbiaozhunheshichangjianguanzhihou,faguibiaozhunshangbuwanshan,zongheliyongchanyequeshaoguifanheyinling,ziyuanzongheliyongleichanpinshichangrenkedudi,nanyidaguimotuiguang。

②chanpinshichangkongjianxiao、lifeijiancaichanpinshichangzhanyoulvdi、diyuxianzhitezhengmingxian。

5congkejizhichengdejiaodukan

①tuidongjishugexindezhiduqianque,kejizhichengbuzu,gongchengjishurencaijinque。yifangmian,xiangguanzhiduqianque,chanyejichuxing、qianzhanxing、guanjiangongxingjishuyanfafangmiantourubugou。lingyifangmian,rencaiqianque,rencaipeiyangtixibuwanshan,shejidexingye、zhuanyemenleihezhishicengmianfeichangguang,baohantumu、kuangjia、caikuang、huanjing、cailiao、yejin、nongyedengzhuanyedexiangguanzhishi,muqianjiaoyutixizhongshangweishelizhuanmendeziyuanzongheliyongxiangguanzhuanye,daozhixiangguankeyanrenyuanhegongchengjishurenyuanyanzhongjinque,henduoqiyemianlin“yicainanqiu”dewenti,jiashangchanyejiaoweichuji,xingyeyinglinenglicha,qiyejingyingkunnan,qiyeyoumianlin“rencainanliu”dekunjing,zhiyuechanyefazhan。

②shouxingyezhuanyexingyingxiang,muqianxiangguankeyanrenyuanduozhizhuanzhuzaimougelingyudeliyongwenti,quefaquanjuxing、xitongxingdetongchouguihuahekaolv,yizhilegufeidechanyelianquanmianfazhan。xiangguankeyanrenyuanjiandekeyanchengguoweinengxingchengxitong。daozhikeyanxiaolvdi、jinzhanhuanman、ziyuanliyongxiaolvdidengwenti。

6congzhengcedejiaodukan

①dazonggongyegutifeiwujianlianghua、ziyuanhualiyongxiangduizhihou,quefaduigutifeiwuchanshengzhezerendeyueshuxingzhiduyaoqiu。woguojinzaidazonggongyegutifeiwuanquanduicun、chuzhidengfangmianyouqiangzhixingfalvyaoqiu,erzaijianlianghua、ziyuanhuafangmianweijiayiguifanbingtichuqiangzhixingyaoqiu。xiangguanfalvduigutifeiwujianlianghua、ziyuanhuadeyaoqiuduoweiyuanzeguiding,quefaduigutifeiwuchanshengzhezerendeyueshuxingzhiduyaoqiu,daozhiqiyecaiyongxianjinshiyongjishugaizaochuantongchanye,congyuantoujianshaogongyegutifeiwuchanshengdeyalibugou、donglibuzu,duizongheliyongzhongshichengdubugou,budaowanbudeyizhishibuhuiqukaolvzongheliyongdewenti。

②shengchanzhezerenyanshenzhiduxiazhai。xiangqitaguojiaeryan,woguofalvguidingdeshengchanqiyedezerenqueburuguowaiguidingdeda。liruruguoyijiaqiyeshiyongleqitaqiyedefeiqiwu,rugongyefeizha、fenmeihuideng,houzhebujinbuhuiduiqianzhejinxingbutie,fanerhuixiangfeiqiwushiyongzhesuoqu“yuanliao”shiyongfei,shideliyongqiyewulirunketu,yincinanyifazhan,gengbuyuanyichengdangaixiangzeren。

③fuchibaozhangzhidubuzu,yiyoufuchizhengcexietongxing、xitongxingbugou,xiangguanjiagezhengcezhihou。dazonggongyegutifeiwuzongheliyongchanyeyouyuzongheliyongjishufuza、jingjixiaoyicha,ziyuanzongheliyongxiangmutouzida、lirunshao、touzihuibaoqizhangdengyuanyin,shuyuzhengcequdongxingchanye,weichixu、shenrutuijinziyuanzongheliyong,dazonggongyegutifeiwuzongheliyongchanyexuyaodedaozhengfuxiangguanpeitaocaishuizhengcededalizhichihefuchi。

7congjianguandejiaodukan

①guanlitizhijizhibushunchang。woguogongyetixipangda,chanyejiegoufuza,gutifeiwujianlianghua、ziyuanhua、wuhaihuaguanlizhinengfensanzaiduogeguanlibumen。zaijutizhixingguochengzhongxiediaonandujiaoda。huanbaobumenguanzhugutifeiwudewuranshuxinghefangzhigongzuo,fuzeziyuanxunhuanliyongdezhuguanbumenzepianzhonggutifeiwudeziyuanjiazhi,daozhiguanlixiediao。

②ziyuanfenleichulichuzhiguanlizhiduyanzhongquewei,duiqiyeziyuanfenleichulichuzhiyueshulijiaoruo。ciwai,zaixianyoudeguanlitixixia,ziyuanhehuanjingchengbenpiandi,daozhiziyuanzongheliyongchanyedefazhanquefadongli。

③yixiedifangzhengfudelingdaoduigutifeiwuwuranfangzhigongzuozhongshibugou,duiwuranfangzhiyanjunxingshirenshibuzu,xiangguanzhengceluoshihetuixinghuanman。

8congzibendejiaodukan

①gudingzichantouzijiaozhong,qiyezijinchoubeinanduda,touzizhouqizhang,muqianchanyeyinglinenglicha,chanyedengyuanyin,zaijiashangjianguanjizhi、chanyezhengcetizhidengbuwanbei,caizhengzhichengbuzu,daozhichanyedeshehuizibenqinglaidujiaodi。

ziyuandegongxiangfuwu,shizhongguodazonggongyegutifeiwuwuranfangzhihezongheliyonglingyudedaqushi。

//总统计